IMPORTANT BRAIN REGIONS RELATED
- Amygdala: Responsible
for emotional integration of sensory input and memories.
- Basal ganglia: Located deep in the
hemispheres. The basal ganglia are made up of the globus pallidus,
caudate nucleus, and amygdala. Forms a circuit with the cortex. Important
in the regulation of movement and in habit learning. Works closely
with the frontal lobes.
- Brain stem: Connection from the spinal cord to lower
areas of the brain. Responsible for
autonomic functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and the like.
Motor and sensory
neurons pass through the brain stem.
- Broca’s area: Located in the left frontal
lobe. Involved in the production of fluent
- Caudate nucleus: Part of the neostriatum, which
is part of basal ganglia. Receives
projections from the neocortex and connects through the putamen and
globus pallidus to
the thalamus and finally to the motor area of the cortex.
- Cerebellum: The back portion of the brain that assists
in coordinating movement.
Damage often results in ataxia (uncoordinated voluntary muscle
- Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, divided
into the left and right cerebral hemispheres.
These upper portions of the brain are believed to be predominantly
for higher-order functions. Divided into the left and right cerebral
- Left cerebral hemisphere: In most people the left
cerebral hemisphere is responsible for
speech, math, reading, and writing. Damage to the left hemisphere often
problems with verbal communication and problems with movement on the
right side of
- Right cerebral hemisphere: In most people the right
cerebral hemisphere is responsible
for visuospatial skills, direction, attention, and the regulation of
emotions. Damage to this
area will affect movement on the left side of the body and visuospatial
- Corpus callosum: Connects the two hemispheres of
the brain, allowing for communication
- Frontal lobes: Responsible for higher-order functioning
(judgment, abstraction, and
motivation) and the production of speech and has influence on personality.
results in difficulty with verbal expression, difficulty concentrating,
and lack of emotional
control. In the back of the frontal lobes are the motor areas that
movements. Damage results in contralateral paralysis, or paralysis
on the opposite side of
- Hippocampus: Structure in the brain believed to
be responsible for the processing and
coordination of memory functioning. It is the end point of the cortex
and the ultimate
destination of multiple cortical and subcortical processes.
- Neurons: Cells in the brain that store and process
- Neurotransmitters: Chemicals produced by
the neurons that carry information from
neuron to neuron. Specific neurotransmitters are responsible for specific
instance, dopamine is responsible for movement).
- Occipital lobes: Located in the back of the brain.
Responsible for regulation and processing
- Parietal lobes: The anterior (front part)
of the parietal lobes is responsible for tactile
discrimination and recognition. The posterior (back part)
of the parietal lobe is responsible
for attention. The left parietal lobe is responsible for reading, writing,
The Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Workbook
performance of learned information. Its other function is speech. The
right parietal lobe is
responsible for the comprehension of visuospatial relationships and
expressions and tones in speech.
- Substantia nigra: Connects basal ganglia to the
midbrain. Provides dopamine to the
- Temporal lobes: Important for memory. When information
enters the sensory registers it
is briefly stored here and then sent to long-term memory or lost. The
bottom section (ventral portion) of the temporal lobes regulates
the recognition of faces and objects (note
that this is a different function than recognizing facial expressions).
The left portion of
the temporal lobe is important for processing auditory information.
- Thalamus: Responsible for the relay of sensory information.
with the temporal lobes and serves a primary function in memory.
area: Located in the rear of the
superior temporal gyrus. Believed to be
involved in the comprehension of speech.